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How Does A Dentist Drill Work?


A dental drill or dentist's drill is a small, high-speed drill used during dental procedures, usually to remove decay and shape tooth structure prior to the insertion of a filling or crown. A dental drill may also be used in the cleaning and shaping of root canals during endodontic treatment, or to remove old or temporary fillings or crowns prior to the insertion of new or permanent restorations. The term "dental drill" is considered the more colloquial form of the term "dental handpiece," although it can also be construed as to include the power source for one or more handpieces, a "dental engine." "Handpiece" and "engine" are more generic and euphemistic terms for generic dental tools.

There are various designs of dental drills available, however, each have the same basic features, including motors, a handpiece, couplings, and a drill bit. The high speed drilling is activated by an air turbine. These devices convert highly pressurized air into mechanical energy, enabling drill bits to rotate over 300,000 rpms. Slower speeds are also necessary for things such as polishing, finishing, and soft tissue drilling, so dental drills are typically equipped with secondary motors. Common types include electric motors and air-driven motors.
The handpiece is typically a slender, tube-shaped device which connects the drill bit with the driving motor. It is often light-weight and ergonomically designed. It also has an E-shaped attachment that ensures that the drill bit is properly angled for maximum system stability. These components of the dental drill were once quite delicate. However, recent health concerns have forced designers to develop handpieces that can withstand high-pressure steam sterilization. The couplings are used to connect the drill unit to the electric or air power sources and cooling water. They can either consist of two or four holes, depending on the type of fitting.
Current iterations can operate at up to 800,000 rpm, however, most common is a 400,000 rpm "high speed" handpiece for precision work complemented with a "low speed" handpiece operating at a speed that is dictated by a micromotor which creates the momentum (max up to 40,000 rpm) for applications requiring higher torque than a high-speed handpiece can deliver.
How Does A Dentist Drill Work?
Today dentists are dependent on the handpiece / drill, if drill is running smoothly then practice is running smoothly.
Handpiece or drill is a sophisticated device which runs on electric motor or air pressure, The drill which you see commonly in the dental clinic is a air driven handpiece. It runs with the help of compressed air which helps in rotating the turbine which ultimately rotates the bur.
You may be thinking How fast does dentist drill rotates?
Turbine of the dental drill rotate at the free speed of 3,80,000  to 4,50,000 revolutions  per minute ie rpm. This speed is measure in two categories one is free speed (when bur is not in the contact of tooth surface) and other is active speed (when bur is in contact with tooth surface). Active speed is around 1,80,000 to 2,00,000 rpm.
You may think what is the need of such a high speed, answer is- Dentist have to drill or cut one of the hardest structure of the human body which is enamel.
Dental handpiece recommend: 

NSK S-Max M25L Style

1. NSK S-Max M25L Style
2. Fiber Optic (inner water spray) 1:1 direct drive inner channel contra angle
3. Optic fiber inner channel push button contra angle
4. For CA burs Ø2.35-0.016mm
5. Clean Head System
6. Push Button Chuck 
7. Single Water Spray
8. Ceramic Bearings




CX235 C6-13 20:1 

Against the angle 20: 1 with its slim head is designed for endodontic treatment. 
Type E connector ISO standard. 
Bur CA Φ2, 35 mm 
Speed: 0 to 30 000 revolutions / min

Against angle x 1 
User manual x 1 
Other accessories x 1




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