The use of ultrasound dental instruments has greatly increased over the past 20 years. Ultrasound treatment is more difficult than manual instruments and provides additional irrigation effects. Ultrasonic scalding has proven to be effective in calculus and biofilm removal, but can it provide additional benefits? Some people assert that the pulsating bubbles (vacuoles) and acoustic microfluidics (fluid flow produced by ultrasonic oscillations) may have a bactericidal effect. Cavitation discussion and possibilities, it could damage the oral biofilm, which began in 1984, when Dr Walmsley's paper "a model system demonstration Cavitational activity the effect of ultrasonic wave expansion", published in the dental Research. Because there is no 1 in the subject of the Research has been published, the effect of cavitation and acoustic microstreaming debate continues. Oral hygiene has a chance to talk to, Dr Worm his views on the question.
How does an ultrasound counter work?
The metal probe of the ultrasonic counter oscillates in high frequency. It is the energy of this movement that destroys the biofilm and cracks of microbial life. This effect on teeth may also have devastating effects, but these are avoided by trained operators who know how the instrument works. When the ultrasound machine is running, the flow of cooling water passes through the top, reducing the amount of heat that can cause problems with important teeth. When water flows past the ultrasound tip, additional physical phenomena are visible - including cavitation and acoustic microflow.
Which forces in ultrasonic instruments affect cavitation and acoustic microflow?
As mentioned above, cavitation is the formation of a pulsating bubble driven by an ultrasonic field. When the ultrasound passes through the water, the molecules are pushed closer together and split apart in an instant. If the motion of these sound waves is high, just like the frequencies used in dentistry, the micron-sized bubbles will swell and collapse. The subsequent energy is released as a shock wave, heat and/or mutation of nearby hydraulic pressure. Although a bubble energy dissipation soon, but in the coolant, there will be thousands and thousands of air bubbles, if not millions, that will produce other bubbles, resulting in the emergence of the pulse.
The acoustic microflow is another energy released around the ultrasound device. This phenomenon is characterized by the small current movement in the water (figure 1). Microcirculation often occurs around oscillating objects, such as vacuoles or scalar spikes. These currents generate enough shear force to break down bacteria, but not enough to break down bacterial cell walls. These forces have been shown to remove flagella or other protrusions on bacterial cell walls. They also break down bacterial colonies and destroy biological fibers
What does cavitation look like?
Different laboratories and photographic techniques can be used to describe cavitation around ultrasonic instruments. The energy released from the bubbles can break down water or other chemicals. Luminol is a chemical that lights up to respond to this cavitation effect so that we can imagine what's happening. FIG. 2 shows the most intense cavitation of the typical ultrasonic insertion/cutting edge design. This picture was taken by a free working dental equipment in a water chamber. However, when the ultrasonic scalar touches a solid surface, such as a tooth, cavitation can still occur, although more research is needed to verify the degree and extent of cavitation. Further studies are needed to determine whether cavitation occurs in the contact area between the tip of the tooth and the tooth when moving in the periodontal pocket. Nor do you know how the Inuit size, shape or style will affect the process.
Early laboratory studies have shown that a behavior in water can remove plaque from the teeth, rather than direct contact with the teeth. 6, 7 this is due to the empty activity and the sound microflow, because these two phenomena are interrelated.
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